Online communities such as chatrooms, forums and websites.


Involuntary repetition of words or phrases, often without meaning.


A behaviour characteristic of some people with autism whereby the individual repeats or imitates observed movements involuntarily.

ECT (Electro-Convulsive Therapy)

A treatment whereby seizures are indced by passing electricity through the brain.

EEG (Electroencephalogram)

A procedure to diagnose some neurological conditions, such as seizures, by recording electrical impulses int he brain.

EHC (Education, Health and Care) Plan

A plan to specify the educational, health and care needs of a pupil in order to enable learning during the school years up to age 25.

Elective mutism

A condition whereby a person will talk in one environment or situation and be silent in another environment or situation, eg talk at home and silent at work.

Elephant therapy

An intervention based on the use of elephants and elephant sounds.


An inflammation of the brain tissue caused either by infection or by an autoimmune disease.


A painkiller produced naturally by the body in the brain, spinal chord or other parts of the body.

Environmental modification

The design and/or modification of a local environment to meet the needs of a specific individual.


The study of the causes and distribution of diseases.

Epilepsy (Seizure disorder)

A medical condition in which the sufferer experiences sudden, involuntary occurrences of altered consciousness and/or motor activity, ie. seizures.

Equine therapy

A group of therapies using horses to help individuals with autism to interact.


An alternative spelling of aetiology (see Aetiology).

Executive function

The ability to inhibit actions, delay responses and make appropriate choices. Also the ability to plan, organize and follow through actions.