Basal Ganglia Disorder

A developmental disorder of the basal ganglia region of the brain which can cause, amongst other symptoms, motor disorder, tics, stuttering, obsessive-compulsive behaviour, attention difficulties and learning disabilities.


A scheme which encourages a one-to-one relationship with a volunteer befriender/buddy.

Behaviour analytic instruction

Another term for ABA (see ABA)

Behavioural disorders

Repetitive and persistent behaviour patterns which go against usual social rules and which can impede a person’s social functioning.

Behavioural phenotype

A pattern of cognitive, linguistic, motor and social abnormalities associated with biological disorders.

Behavioural techniques

Approaches which address a person’s displayed behaviours rather than their thoughts and feelings. These approaches use classical conditioning techniques to modify or eliminate certain behaviours.

Behavioural therapy

A systematic and scientific application of conditioning and reinforcing therapeutic techniques to address behavioural disorders (see Behavioural disorders).

Beta endorphin

A naturally occurring hormone which is released when the body is under stress and which is responsible for reducing pain.

Bipolar disorder

A condition affecting an individual’s moods whereby they can swing from one extreme to another.

Bowen technique

A massage therapy involving the use of fingers or thumbs to move over muscle, ligaments and fascia in various parts of the body.

Brain balance programme

An intervention aiming to correct the imbalances in the connections and functions of the brain and designed to integrate physical and cognitive exercises with dietary change.

Brushing technique

A therapy which applies rapid and firm pressure to the arms, hands, back, legs and feet using a surgical brush.

BSL (British Sign Language)

A sign language used by the deaf community and others with verbal communication difficulties in the United Kingdom.